Everything You Need to Know About Writing a 3rd-Person POV

Everything You Need to Know About Writing a 3rd-Person POV

Everything You Need to Know About Writing a 3rd-Person POVChances are good you’re using a third-person POV (or Point of View) in your story right now. If not, then you likely used it in the past or will give it a try in the future. It’s a nearly universal writing technique and the most popular of all the POV choices. But are you using it correctly?

Not everything in writing comes easily. I often talk about how most of storytelling—particularly structure—is surprisingly instinctive for most writers. We understand it on a subconscious level, to the point we’re often on the right track with our books long before our conscious brains catch up.

But not everything’s like that. For most writers, POV isn’t like that. The gist of one of the questions I most frequently receive is:

POV????!!!!panicked emoji

I’ve written primer posts about omniscient POV and first-person POV, but I realized I still needed to do one on the most prevalent of all POVs—the third-person POV.

This is the POV of choice in more books than not—everything from Emma to Ender’s Game. It’s arguably the least complicated of the POVs, so it’s a good choice for beginning writers. But it’s also arguably the most flexible of the POVs, which means it’s also a good choice for the most advanced and complicated of stories.

Emma Jane Austen Ender's Game Orson Scott Card

In short, third-person POV is pretty awesome—but only if you understand what you’re doing with it and how to properly put its mighty powers to work. Let’s kick that panicked emoji to the curb and start answering your most burning and fundamental questions about the third-person POV.

What Is Third-Person POV?

First off, the basics. What is this third-person POV gibberish of which I speak?

A third-person POV is a narrative in which the third-person pronouns (he/she/him/her/his/hers), as well as the characters’ names, are used to describe all the characters–including the protagonist and/or the narrator(s).

For example, from Patrick Rothfuss’s Slow Regard of Silent Things:

Opening her eyes, Auri saw a whisper of dim light. A rare thing, as she was tucked tidily away in Mantle, her privatest of places. It was a white day, then. A deep day. A finding day. She smiled, excitement fizzing in her chest.

This is in contrast to first-person, which uses the first-person pronouns I/me/mine, as in Rothfuss’s Wise Man’s Fear:

Truth be told, I didn’t even know her real name. Auri was just what I had come to call her, but in my heart I thought of her as my little moon Fae.

The Slow Regard of Silent Things by Patrick Rothfuss demonstrates a third-person POV, while The Wise Man's Fear demonstrates a first-person POV.


Three Types of Third-Person POV

The reason the third-person POV is the most flexible of all the POV choices is because it offers a variety of “sub-choices” within itself. There are any number of degrees to these choices, but we can break them down into three basic categories:

1. Omniscient Third-Person POV

Omniscient POV is a technique unto itself. Usually, when writers talk about a third-person POV, they are talking about one of the following categories, rather than omniscient. But since the omniscient POV almost always uses third-person pronouns for its characters, it is technically a third-person POV.

The very essence of the omniscient POV is, of course, it’s all-knowing-ness. It doesn’t limit itself to a single character’s head, but flows from character to character or even beyond all the characters, sharing information only the writer could know.

The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe by C.S. Lewis demonstrates an omniscient POV.Example: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe by C.S. Lewis

Once there were four children whose names were Peter, Susan, Edmund and Lucy. This story is about something that happened to them when they were sent away from London during the war because of the air-raids. They were sent to the house of an old Professor who lived in the heart of the country, ten miles from the nearest railway station and two miles from the nearest post office.

Pros of Omniscient Third-Person POV

  • Allows readers to see everything by providing a panoramic view.
  • Controls the narrative outside of the characters’ experience.
  • Maintains distance from any one character.
  • Adds dramatic irony or subext, via the contrast between the omniscience of the author/narrator and the characters’ “finite” perspectives.

Cons of Omniscient Third-Person POV

  • Creates distance from the characters.
  • Sometimes creates reader disorientation by delving into “head hopping.”
  • Requires compensation in thematic questions, dramatic irony, or excellent prose, to make up for narrative distance.
Infographic Third-Person Omniscient

Infographic originally from the article “Writing in Third Person Omniscient vs Third Person Limited” on Reedsy

2. Distant Limited Third-Person POV

A limited third-person POV is one that eschews omniscience and confines the narrative to only one character’s perspective at a time. It’s possible to employ multiple limited third-person POVs, but the changes between POVs much clearly indicated via scene breaks.

Have you seen the trailer for that new movie Hardcore Henry, riffing off first-person shooter video games–in which you see only what the protagonist sees? That‘s limited POV. What’s found in the narrative is only what the narrating character himself experiences: only what he sees, hears, tastes, touches, smells, or thinks.

However, remember this is also a distant POV, which means that while you’re limiting the perspective to a single character, you’re not in his head in the same way you would be in a deep POV (see below). What this usually comes down to is that you’re going be erring more on the side of telling about this character, rather than actively showing his experience.

London by Edward Rutherfurd demonstrates a distant limited third-person POV.Example: London by Edward Rutherfurd

Silversleeves had only gone three miles from the castle gates when he wished he hadn’t. The sun had been out when he left that June morning, but now it was raining hard. As the lush meadows all around roared with the din of falling water, and the raindrops gathered on the end of his nose, he cut a sorry figure.

Pros of Distant Limited Third-Person POV

  • Creates a tighter narrative, compared to omniscience.
  • Allows for deeper connection between narrating character and readers.
  • Also allows for more distance than in a deep POV (which can be a pro, depending on the story and the character).
  • Sometimes allows for narrative “explaining” from author (e.g., of backstory, setting information, etc.).

Cons of Distant Limited Third-Person POV

  • Keeps readers at arm’s length from characters.
  • Often creates a narrative that “tells” more than “shows.”
  • Is rarely as colorful as deep third-person POV has the ability to be.
Infographic Third-Person Limited

Infographic originally from the article “Writing in Third Person Omniscient vs Third Person Limited” on Reedsy

3. Deep Third-Person POV

Just as its name suggests, the “deep” (or “close”) third-person POV allows you to go deep into your narrating character’s head. In essence, this technique is no different from the first-person POV, save for the differing pronouns. You can think of it like this: every word in a deep POV is coming straight out of your character’s head. You’re trying to create the experience, for the readers, of actually being your narrating character.

As a result, deep third-person finds its greatest strengths when the narrating character provides a unique and vibrant narrative voice, in which everything he experiences or thinks is shown to readers, rather than simply told.

For example, in a distant narrative, you might write “he cut a sorry figure,” as Rutherfurd does in the previous section’s example, but in a deep narrative, you would instead show why the character felt like a sorry figure: “He slogged through the mud. His hair plastered his temples, his fine new clothes were filthy, and his nose was running egregiously. This was a fine state in which to be meeting the countess.”

Paladin of Souls by Lois McMaster Bujold demonstrates a deep third-person POV.Example: Paladin of Souls by Lois McMaster-Bujold

She leaned between the crenelations again, the stone abrading the lavender sleeves of her court mourning dress, catching at its silk threads. Her eye followed the road in the morning light, starting from the stones below and flowing downhill, through the town, past the river… and where? All roads were one road, they said. A great net across the land, parting and rejoining. All roads ran two ways. They said. I want a road that does not come back.

Pros of Deep Third-Person Person

Cons of Deep-Third Person

  • Limits narrative to a single character at any given time.
  • Puts more pressure on excellent characterization.
  • Can be wordier, due to emphasis on “showing.”

A Caveat: Forget Everything I Just Told You About the “Three” Categories

Characters Emotions and Viewpoint by Nancy KressBefore we move on, I must offer a word of caution: The three categories I’ve presented here are the three obvious distinctions found within the third-person POV. But that does not mean they are always distinct. As Nancy Kress says in Characters, Emotion, & Viewpoint:

It’s important to emphasize that close, middle, and distant third-person viewpoints are not really separate and discreet categories. Rather, they’re a continuum, just as a camera moving progressively farther away from a film subject would have no absolute point labeled “far.” The terms are relative and flexible.

4 Considerations for Deep Third-Person POV

Before we leave the subject, let us look a little, well, deeper into deep third-person. I’ve written extensively about omniscient POV here, and distant limited third-person is comparatively intuitive and easy to figure out. Deep third, however, is a little more complicated. Before you dive into your third-person narrative, here are four important aspects to keep in mind:

1. Narrative Voice

Your ability to bring your narrating character to life through his voice on the page is one of the greatest benefits of deep third-person (just as it is and must be with first-person). If you’re going to succeed in giving readers the impression they’re in this character’s head, then every word in the narrative must be spoken in this character’s voice. Don’t settle for a bland voice; search and experiment until you can bring that special “it” quality to the narrative, from the very first page.

Stand Up Guy Michael SnyderExample from A Stand-Up Guy by Michael Snyder

It was obviously Oliver’s turn to speak. But every time he opened his mouth the sluicing roar of adrenaline made it impossible to focus on forming words. His addled brain peppered him with unanswerable questions: When had she come in? How much did she hear? What had she thought of his material? What must she think of him? Not to mention his idiotic uniform. The question he finally settled on was So, how may I help you? But it came out like: “So, what are you doing here anyway?”

2. Showing vs. Telling

Out of all the POVs, deep third (and first) put perhaps the most emphasis upon “showing” rather than “telling.”

Avoid “telling” verbs, such as:

  • Saw/Observed/Noticed
  • Heard
  • Smelled
  • Tasted
  • Felt
  • Thought

Instead, show what your narrator is experiencing. Instead of saying he “felt angry,” show him going all green rage monster and throwing crates at the wall. Instead of saying, he “smelled burnt bread,” describe the scent of char. Instead of saying “he saw a disturbance on the street,” describe the brawlers and the flash of lights on the cop cars.

Cinder Marissa Meyer Lunar ChroniclesExample from Cinder by Marissa Meyer

A stained tablecloth divided Cinder from browsers as they shuffled past. The square was filled with shoppers and hawkers, children and noise. The bellows of men as they bargained with robotic shopkeepers, trying to talk the computers down from their desired profit margins. The hum of ID scanners and monotone voice receipts as money changed accounts. The netscreens that covered every building and filled the air with the chatter of advertisements, news reports, gossip.

3. Using But Not Abusing Narrative

Especially in a deep POV, it can be tempting to allow the character’s internal narrative to do the heavy lifting. Now, granted, this is sometimes not only acceptable, but unavoidable, if you’re going to properly advance the character’s inner growth.

However, whenever you find yourself writing paragraphs upon paragraphs about how your character feels or in which he explains the situation to readers, you’ll want to double back and consider ways in which you can dramatize these events. Show readers what’s going on, and use your subtext to strengthen the overall reading experience.

Duchess by Susan May Warren demonstrates proper narrative subtext in a deep third-person POV.Example from Duchess by Susan May Warren

Palace Studios has bleached her hair to starlight white, plucked her eyebrows clear off her face, and penciled in a line of black. They’d framed her lips in a bloodred cupid’s bow and honed her figure into something that added mystery and allure under her teal blue satin evening gown….

“But it’s not real. It’s not me.”

“Make it you, doll. If this is what you want, you’ll have to become Miss Roxy Price.”

The actress in the mirror found a smile for him. Nodded.

4. Multiple POVs

Just because you happen to be deep inside your protagonist’s head doesn’t mean his is the only head you can explore. You may choose to use multiple deep third-person POVs (or even a mix of third- and first-person, as Charles Dickens did in Bleak House). This allows you to get around many of the limitations of the form by showing other characters’ perspectives as well.

However, always consider carefully. For every POV you gain, you also risk a little something in overall narrative cohesion and focus. To quote the Roman poet Horace:

Nothing is beautiful from every point of view.

Never give a character a POV “just because.” Always consider the overall effect you’re trying to achieve in the narrative. Will this extra POV enhance or weaken that effect? And when you do choose to include more than one POV, seek out vibrant and unique voices for each character and delineate between POV switches with a clear scene or chapter break.

Indivisible by Kristen Heitzmann demonstrates multiple POVs in third-person.Example from Indivisible by Kristen Heitzmann

Pain speared. [Tia’s] foot slipped, and the other leg buckled. Her staff tumbled over rocks and juniper, as her hands scraped, her cheek burned, her head and shoulder banged. She grasped for tree trunks, ripping bark and moss and the flesh of her palms before she lodged with a thud in the crook of the ravine.


Piper paced. It was way past time for Tia to call or come home. Even if there’d been an emergency, wouldn’t she make contact? Piper fingered her phone. She’d left three messages. No response. She looked out through the streaming pane.

The third-person POV is a magnificently complex and flexible technique that adapts itself to any number of skill levels or narrative requirements. A mastery of the third-person POV will allow you to write a book that instantly conveys to readers they’re safely in the hands of a master storyteller.

Wordplayers, tell me your opinion! Have you used third-person POV in any of your stories? Why did you choose it? Tell me in the comments!

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About K.M. Weiland | @KMWeiland

K.M. Weiland is the award-winning and internationally-published author of the acclaimed writing guides Outlining Your Novel, Structuring Your Novel, and Creating Character Arcs. A native of western Nebraska, she writes historical and fantasy novels and mentors authors on her award-winning website Helping Writers Become Authors.


  1. Due to the complex nature of my storylines, I have always written from a third-person POV. One of the hardest struggles that I have is the balance between focusing on the characters and focusing on the events of the plot. But I have almost always found third person to be preferable to the more restrictive first person (although I do prefer using first and second person in short stories).

    Thank you for this article; I found it very informative and I shall refer back to it as I edit my third-person works.

  2. Hey Katie, great blog, very helpful!
    I have a question for you:
    Let’s say you’re writing in deep third person limited, and the narrating character is talking about her mother, in that case would you call the mother by her name or call her ‘mom’ or ‘mother’?
    Would you write it like this:
    “It was a typical thing for Julie(the mother)to do.”
    Or this:
    “It was a typical thing for Kimberly’s(the narrating character)mom to do.”

    The reason why I’m wondering is because I would never call my mother by name I would call her mom, as I’m sure most people would, so if every word is coming directly from the main characters voice – even though it’s in third person POV – then wouldn’t that mean that the character should call her mother ‘mom’ and not call her by name?
    Or would you still use the mother’s name in this case even though the character wouldn’t call her mother by name?
    I hope you understand my question, English is not my first language.


    • K.M. Weiland | @KMWeiland says

      Good question! Generally, when you’re in a deep POV, you want to refer to other characters in whatever way the POV character would naturally think of them. So, usually, “I looked at Mom” would be appropriate. My critique partner Linda Yezak wrote a great post on this.

      • I know you wrote this three years ago, but I had this question too and wanted to read what your critique partner had written about it but their blog is set to private. Your readers are unable to read their post.

  3. Mallory G. O'Bier says

    This article is really helpful. I know now that some of the books I own are Third Person Deep.

    The only thing is, I’m still struggling a little trying to figure out for sure which type of Third Person Narrative voice I am using in my own writing. It’s got to be either Third Person Deep or Third Person Limited. (I think it’s Third Person Limited)

    Do you have any advice for identifying it?

    What is the strongest difference between Third Person Limited and Third Person Deep?

    • K.M. Weiland | @KMWeiland says

      This is where it gets a little confusing, because Deep is always Limited, but Limited isn’t always Deep.

      Basically, the differences in a nutshell:

      Deep POV: Goes *deep* into a character’s head and presents the entire narrative in his “personality” and voice.

      Limited POV: *Limits* the POV to a single character’s perspective. Can go deep, but can also be presented as mere surface observations.

  4. K.m. In my co-author book I have third person and first person for speaking.

    Why can’t writers use telling vebs?


    • K.M. Weiland | @KMWeiland says

      It’s not that they *can’t*, it’s that you’ll usually get a more vivid experience by avoiding using them as crutches.

      • K.M.,

        Thank you. In your book dreamlander your main character does have parents yes?

        When you write do you use said a lot or add stuff to said.

        “Arg,” The pirate said in a pirate voice.

        • K.M. Weiland | @KMWeiland says

          Yes, the main character in Dreamlander has parents.

          As for punctuating dialogue, “said” is a sturdy dialogue tag that can usually be used by itself. However, I prefer to rely on action beats when possible, since they both indicate the speaker and show the scene via the character’s thoughts and actions: E.g., “The pirate brandished his sword. ‘Argh!'”

  5. K.M,

    Okay, I got it. In some young adult books I have read some of the writers use first person and some use third person.

    What do you use?

    I use both first and third only first when the character is talking.

  6. Ms. Albina says


    When you write dialogue -do you write long dialogue or short dialogue?

    My examples:

    “I will teach you how to write in runes,” Delphina spoke in a friendly voice.

    “I’m her second messenger, the first messenger is my sister Arella,” Delphina replied. “I send messages telepathically to Maia. She gifted my sister and I with immorality and we both became messenger goddesses,”
    “ I did not know that,” Jewel said. “I know how to read,”
    “Do you know how to write in runes?” Delphina asked.
    “No, I don’t,” Jewel, said.
    The man stopped and said. “My name is Zane Merrick,” he continued, “I wish you no harm,” The mysterious stranger smiled. Halt!!” commanded the priestess holding her hand up.
    “State your business!”

    Leilani and Cara both have telepathy, and healing powers. Cara who the mer-priestess does not have visions-Leilani does.

    When Leilani has her visions her spirit body or self sees the vision in her dreams since she travels in the vision.

    Since she saw two children who were ill with the yellow death in co-author book 1.

    Do any of your characters in your dreamlander series have powers or abilities?

  7. Ms. Albina says


    Thank you,

    How do I write in deep third person like you do you have examples of deep third person?

  8. Does anyone know of any editor that know about deep pov and won’t try and put back in everything I’ve worked so hard to take out? The editer I found was find the first couple of chapters then on chapter three she’s putting stuff back in like: He saw, she saw, she look and making my inner thoughts in italics.

    The italics have to stay out not just because it’s deep pov but because in the next couple of chapters the god that in the same body with her starts talking in her head and I need the italics to separate his thoughts from hers.

    The editer also needs to like fantasy. I just a proofreading and simple error fixing atm.


  9. Apologies that was a little hard to read, I better go have a coffee. xD

  10. Very informative read, and I finally have a name for the POV I use. Thank you. I’m not a native speaker, but I always write in English (I’ve only ever written fanfiction so far) and in my native language “deep third POV” is known as “indirect free speech.”

    Two questions:

    1) Any thoughts on second person POV? As a reader I find it disturbing but oddly appropriate if, for instance, we’re inside a serial killer’s head.

    2) For deep third, is it alright to be deliberately confusing in specific portions of your writing or is it simply not done? In one of my Harry Potter fics a character (Severus Snape, in this instance) who has been running on barely any sleep for over four days watches someone he cares about (and has been trying to save) die in front of him and decides to go back in time (and, in this story, in space as well since she’s stuck in her own mind by a curse) to rescue her despite not knowing what killed her in the first place.

    My beta reader hated the sequence I wrote, said she didn’t think the readers would be able to follow the action, but I left it as I’d written it because it was meant to be confusing in the first place, not only because of the lack of sleep but also because he was running on autopilot, all instict and no conscious thought. I’ve often wondered in the years that followed that particular decision, if it’s just that I’m overly attached to my writing and can’t let go, or if stylistically it was alright to go with my gut. Here’s the offending excerpt:

    – – – – – – – – – – – – –

    “Severus, it’s Miss Granger… Her vitals are failing, Albus said you should know.”

    Without a word Severus ran to the infirmary, panic speeding him until he was out of breath. Oblivious to everyone surrounding him, he made straight to her bed. There was still no outward noticeable change, she appeared to be sleeping just as she had five days ago, but Poppy’s wand showed otherwise. All of her body seemed to be shutting down, as if someone somewhere had pulled a plug: her heart rate was slowing, her brain activity rapidly decreasing. Helpless to do anything but watch, Severus stood transfixed, the scene in front of him unfolding itself as if through a haze. Poppy giving her yet another potion, stronger than the last. Now a spell that was supposed to make her heart beat stronger. Still her pulse was fading. Another potion, last attempt. Pulse gone altogether. Poppy, giving her a cardiac massage. And then, finally, nothing. Defeat and sadness in the mediwitch’s eyes, and a quiet acceptance of the inevitable.

    “NO!” The howl of pain tore at his throat even before he was fully conscious of her death, shattering the solemn aura of the room. Albus, moving forth to reason with him, and suddenly Severus was gripping the older wizard by the shoulders, demanding to know where the parchment was. Albus’ answer, Severus dropping him and running once more like a madman, as he had so long ago when he had first fallen under the influence of the Purgatorium. Only now it was that much more important that he make it on time. Screaming a nearly five-month old password to a gargoyle that refused to budge. Albus’ kind voice supplying the correct one, and Severus was now flying up the moving staircase. Bursting into the Headmaster’s office, reaching inside his robes. Turning the hourglass back, one, two, three, better make it four turns, he didn’t know what she’d been fighting. “Accio Purgatorium Æternus parchment”, thinking hard of the dungeons where he knew she would be, his fingers clutching the letter as if for dear life only harder, stronger, for it was a much more valuable life than his own. And then there he was, screaming her name at the top of his lungs, trying to ignore the terror that he might not have gone back far enough, that he might have lost her already. Running through his chambers, still calling her name, searching every corner where she might be. Then, finally, opening the bathroom door to find her fully clothed in the same dress she’d been wearing five days before, inside a full bathtub, vacant eyes, razor blade – his razor blade, he realised irrelevantly – slowly cutting one exposed wrist, the second one already bleeding. She had been fighting only herself.

    Severus’ mind, jolting him at last into context, and he was inside the bathtub with her, the water so cold – how long had she been there? -, yanking the razorblade from her hand even as he cut his own fingers, his blood mingling with hers in the water, pain he wasn’t even registering, razor blade flying to the floor, wand on her wrists, wounds closing and her eyes now focusing to see him for the first time.

    “S… Severus?” Chin trembling, whole body shaking, and Severus lifting her from the cold water with strong arms, laying her down on the bed, warm blankets over her and his arms never leaving her, murmuring words of comfort.

    “It’s alright, love. It’s alright. You’re not alone anymore, I’m here with you.”

    • K.M. Weiland | @KMWeiland says

      Very interesting about the term “indirect free speech”! Can I ask what *is* your native language?

      In answer to your questions:

      1. Second-person is an extremely tricky POV that should only be used sparingly. But, as you say, it’s very effective in certain situations.

      2. Anything you do “deliberately” in a story is fine, as long as it’s achieving the desired affect. Personally, I didn’t find your excerpt confusing (at least, I don’t think I did–since I have no other context, of course).

      • Apologies for the late reply, I didn’t realise you’d responded. My native language is Portuguese, it’s an incredibly rich and poetic language – and yet I always find myself writing in English, with no idea why.

        • K.M. Weiland | @KMWeiland says

          Very cool! I dabble in French and Italian, but I’m nowhere near fluent enough to actually write in them.

      • I am new to trying to understand the different pov’s. How is that example second person?

  11. Very nice summary of POV, though I disagree that deep limited 3rd person MUST be in the characters voice. Even in deep 3rd, the narrator is still a distinct character from the protagonist, so can choose not to follow the voice.

    I have a quick question, and am hoping you could offer some advice. I am currently writing a fantasy story in limited 3rd, but am not sure how deep I should go with the POV. I originally wrote it somewhere in the middle regarding distance, the narrator was able to notice things the character was not and often used “he thought” or “he felt” to highlight deeper dives. One of my readers suggested I might go deeper into the character’s head. I’m not sure. It will certainly help to focus on and build up that main character. The problem I have is that there are really three important characters in the story, the protag and two followers. And as I review the story, I almost feel like the story is about one of the other characters mostly, despite being told through the main hero’s perspective. The side character is the one who is most fundamentally changed by the events of the story. So should I stick with a more distant POV or go deeper? I know its hard to say without reading the story.

    • K.M. Weiland | @KMWeiland says

      I’m a fan of deep POVs. I see no reason *not* to go deeper. But the ultimate question is: which narrative is more engaging?

  12. Oh, great post! I always write in first person or multiple-person deep third person POV’s, but I always had trouble getting my characters to get outside their head and into the real world–if you know what I mean. This post gave me some great ideas though, and was a wonderful help for helping me to figure out my complex brain children.

  13. M.L. Bull says

    Apparently, I’ve used deep-third-person without even knowing it. I never heard of it before. Just needed a refresher about third-person point of view and the difference between omniscient and third-limited. Thank you very much! 🙂

  14. I really wanted to write with deep third person POV. And I still want to write it, but well. Thank you for the reminder, especially the prohibited verbs and the show don’t tell.

  15. Thank You! But can you please give us some more popular examples for deep third POV – novels that are very famous so they are translated in many languages…


  1. […] Everything You Need to Know About Writing a 3rd-Person POV […]

  2. […] Helping Writers Become Authors – Everything You Need to Know About Third Person POV […]

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  6. […] reader in rather than distancing. If you go “deep,” then the connection only grows. Kim Weiland does a much better job laying it all out than I ever […]

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