Most Common Writing Mistakes: Is Your Prose Too Complex?

(By the way, I used Grammarly to grammar check this post, after the site was recommended to me as an alternative to the Smart-Edit software program I reviewed last month.) 

If story is an art unto itself, then prose is a different kind of art altogether. Writing a book is about the melding of two different worlds: story and words. Most of us start out as storytellers, in love with the sheer power of the tale. But most of us also end up falling in love with the wordplay. If you’re like me, then stringing together gorgeous sentences—one word after another, like gems on a silver chain—is almost as rewarding as the upwelling of inspiration that creates the story itself.

But don’t be fooled. Prose isn’t as easy as the poets sometimes make it look. Good prose is about creating the proper effect. One of the things that gets in the way of that effect is complexity. Now, don’t get me wrong, there’s nothing inherently wrong with a lengthy, twisty, packed sentence. Good literature is full of them. But used wrongly or too often, complex prose can create distance between your readers and your words—or, worse, just leave them confused.


Most Common Writing Mistakes, 23: Is Your Prose Too Complex

How to Spot Problematic Complexity in Your Prose

How can you tell if that beautiful, complex paragraph of yours is awesome—or just overkill? Think of it this way: the more complex a sentence is, the more “guilty” it is—until proven innocent. In other words, complexity has to bear the weight of extra scrutiny. If you’ve got a huge sentence that you just love, don’t just let it slide right on by. Take a moment to really look at it. Ask yourself the following questions:

  • Is it in there just because you love it?
  • Is it really the best way to get the thought across to the reader?
  • Is it in any way confusing?
  • Could it be stated more simply?
  • What would you lose if you opted for simplicity?

Consider this great big honker of a sentence:

As Clancy watched the sunset swirl into the night, he stood on the edge of dock, and he breathed, deeply, desperately, drunkenly of the coming darkness, wondering if this crepuscular vision was a sign of his coming doom, his very own shroud of death falling to his shoulders.

How to Transform Complex Prose Into Simple Prose

In correcting unnecessarily complex language, the first rule of thumb to keep in mind is that simple is better. Almost always, if you can pare a sentence down, you should. This means doing one or any of the following:

  • Deleting redundancies.
  • Dividing long sentences into many shorter sentences.
  • Replacing hundred-dollar words with ten-cent words.
  • Telling it straight, instead of waxing metaphoric.

Let’s see if we can’t fix that horror of a sentence from before:

Clancy watched the sunset fade into darkness. He stood on the edge of dock, and he breathed in the coming night. Would this twilight be the last he would see?

We might make an argument for some of flourishes in the original sentence. But how much clearer is this new version? How much punchier? How much less melodramatic?

During the first draft, don’t be afraid to let those words flow in every little ol’ poetic direction your brain can dream up. But when the time comes to revise, look at every sentence with a critical eye. The more complex your prose, the more critical you should be.

Tell me your opinion: What is your rule of thumb for analyzing the worth of your sentences?

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About K.M. Weiland | @KMWeiland

K.M. Weiland is the award-winning and internationally-published author of the acclaimed writing guides Outlining Your Novel, Structuring Your Novel, and Creating Character Arcs. A native of western Nebraska, she writes historical and fantasy novels and mentors authors on her award-winning website Helping Writers Become Authors.


  1. Hmmm. Overwriting. Guilty. I have to ruthlessly prune my prose otherwise the day’s work reads like an excerpt from Malory or Chaucer. Well, not that bad, but you know what I mean. I think that the simpler you can make it, the more powerful the prose becomes. You want absolutely nothing in the way of the reader and the character, especially in the closing chapters of a novel. That said, it’s hard to get it right.

  2. I love beautiful prose. But the first and most important qualifier for prose, beautiful or not, always has to be, “Is this serving the story?” If not, save it for a birthday card.

  3. Haha, well, hope the birthday cards pile won´t grow too much 😉 I agree complexity hits better when it is scarce, just as metaphors 😀

  4. In my first drafts I try to get the ideas down the best I can, so my sentences are usually wonky. When I go back to do the re-write I spend a lot of time choosing the exact words and structures I need to nail the tone and keep the story moving. I love an economy of words, but it’s not always easy. Oh well, that’s what practice is for– to make whatever you do better, right?

    • K.M. Weiland says

      Great approach. If we’re over-thinking our prose in our first drafts, we’re likely end up letting our infernal internal editors bind and gag us. Much better to just write in the first draft. We can always go back and clean things up later.

  5. So…Smart-Edit or Grammarly? Which do you prefer?

  6. I cut a lot. One of my friends said I write too little words, and the story becomes unpleasant to read. Then she suggested me how to rewrite, and all her suggestions were fillers scenes.
    She said she likes fillers.

    • K.M. Weiland says

      Filler for the sake of filler is rarely a good idea. But every story needs “padding,” in the sense that you’re providing a cushion of reaction periods in between the full-on action.

  7. April Counts says

    This is something I am having a lot of difficulty with. My character is an empath and feels everything. She most often experiences these emotions as physical sensations, smells, tastes, etc. It is an inherent part of the story that the reader is aware of other characters’ emotions through the main character’s point of view. I often use metaphors and similes to describe what she experiences, but how much of this is too much? I can’t do away with it entirely, because it is central to the whole theme of the book.

    • K.M. Weiland says

      Ultimately (and perhaps a bit frustratingly), that’s a question only you can answer. After analyzing the effect of the prose and making sure you feel it’s the best it can be, I would run it by several betas. After they’ve read it, ask them if they feel the prose was ever too overbearing – or if you’ve struck exactly the right note.

      • April Counts says

        Thank you for responding. That’s sort of what I was thinking too. I guess I just dread hearing someone else tell me that the line I thought was beautifully crafted and descriptive is too much after all.

        • K.M. Weiland says

          You probably *will* hear it sooner or later. Art is deeply subjective. Not everyone will share the same opinion about any piece of art, no matter it’s objective worth. It’s always valuable to listen to and consider others’ opinions. But, at the end of the day, remember that you’re the one making the decisions.

  8. mimsy (what did I use before? - shrugs-) says

    -Eyebrow twitches- ACK unneeded ‘ly’ words Hiss! Lots of them; some one get the shotgun. (Referring to the example sentence you provided.) Other good words that might be unneeded are: Stuff, things, got, was, is, are, am and otehr words like that So, cutting those out to can help mkae it less complex, as they don’t usually add or say much.

    • K.M. Weiland | @KMWeiland says

      I generally keep a list of words I know I’m overusing in any given story and running Find/Replace searches periodically to nail them.

  9. mimsy (what did I use before? - shrugs-) says

    I wish we could edit for typos. XD I type too fast.

  10. Christopher says

    I’m coming to this get-together a little late, but I wanted to comment. I’m going to step out of line here and say that truncating senetences and deleting words are fine but should not be a writers M.O. There are writers that have ornate stylized prose, and personally, I think it’s fantastic. The use of a good metaphore should be applauded.

    As a case in point, I shall refer to the Great F. Scott Fitzgerald who once wrote this long, windy prose carrying a beautiful metaphor: “If personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures, then there was something gorgeous about him, some heightened sensitivity to the promises of life, as if he were related to those machines that register earthquakes 10,000 miles away.” The metaphor here is personality being represented as gestures, and Fitzgerald makes a peculiarly enjoyable simile to a seisometer. As one person put it, we start off talking about personality and end up on the subject of earthquakes!

    Personally, if find Fitzgerald’s writing to be extraordinarily good. (As an aside, I also find Jack London to be an extraordinary writer, and if anyone has not read “The Sea Wolf” yet, I implore you to do so.)

    As for the use of multi-syllabic words in lieu of plain, run-of-the-mill words, I have to say “whatevz.” It is an issue of audience, for sure, but it is also, as I believe, an issue of style. And I will elaborate on that. If I were to use a “hundred-dollar word” it would not necessarily be due to my having rummaged through a thesaurus for something exotic and erudite sounding but, rather, it is due to my using a word that is the perfect fit. And when I say perfect fit, it is not only that which conveys the pure meaning of thought behend the sentence or what-have-you but also for the sake of sylistic literary devices and creating that artistic effect, reminiscent of poetry.

    Whether one shoots for the simplicity of Hemmingway or the comlexity of Fitzgerald, a writer will find achieving that perfect sentence difficult. I come from a background in journalism as well as law, and I have had to write efficienty and succinctly to save my writing from being obliterated by an editor. And when it comes to the law, nothing could be worse than having a judge misunderstand a point that is being made in a brief. I think what the goal shoudl be is knowing when to be poetic with prose and when to cut to the point with one’s sharpened knowledge of grammar. There is a skill to be honed balance to be struck; we can have two masters: the ornate and the straight-forward.

    • K.M. Weiland | @KMWeiland says

      Actually, I totally, 100% agree with you. Complex prose is only a problem when it’s *too* complex, and that is largely a subjective call based on style and circumstances. Still, as a very general rule of thumb, simple is usually better than complicated.

      • Christopher says

        Yeah! Definitely.

        By the way, I just wanted to say that I found it odd that I stumbled onto your site. I just purchased five of your books, and they came in the mail just the other day. I had read wonderful reviews about them, and I also had planned on writing some fiction. I have not done that since I was in my early 20s. Everything I have been doing is scholastic, non-fiction or legal in nature. Can I write a good fictional story? Have no idea, but I’m going to find out. First, however, I’m going to read one of your stories. Just wanted to mention this. I was looking on the internet to see what the preferred style is for fictional writing by some of the major publishers, and I stumbled onto this page and your website. I would have come here anyway, eventually. *smile*

        Anyway, I was perviously reading about writing style, about the issue of ornate writing and straight-forward writing, and someone posed the argument that writing style is something that is inherent in the writer, that either style comes out onto the “paper” without any overt conscious thought. It is a subconscious expression. Perhaps that is true, or perhaps it is just the habit of writing that someone fell into, in a sense. Either way, I agree with you that simple is better. I think this is true (and I am probably about to cause some blood to rush to the face for a few) for many because of their current skill in writing and that less skilled will profit from the “less is more” approach. I think the issue is not necessarily complex versus simple but, rather, proper understanding of grammar and craft.

        Everyone knows what grammar is, but craft, at least how I am using it, should be defined for clarity. When I write “craft,” I mean that ability to incorporate parallelism when needed, to choose the word that is the best fit, even if it is uncommon. To have a flow and structure as if it were a great musical composition. Writing cannot be structured arbitrarily; the words cannot be chosen capriciously, the clauses not strung together whimsically: there must be an intelligence behind everything, a reason for its being. If the effect is complex, there is a reason for it. The same for the sentences that are simple. If reading what you wrote feels like stirring cement with an eyelash, then simplify. And now, I believe, I am restating what you wrote or, at least, stating something similar.

        It seems that the main issue with complexity is that there are many people who have not come to that point in writing where fluidity of prose is, for the most part, effortless. For example, there is an inability to recognize the dangling modifier or the tendency to pollute a sentence with needless and inefficient modifying words. There is also that innate, intuitive ability to just know what works and what doesn’t. The latter I believe can only come from (1) reading everything that you can and (2) writing continuously and having others as well as one’s self critique and edit. The former, however, seems to be much more important than the latter. I should also mention again that there is an innate ability, a talent, a gift—whatever one wishes to call it—that enables a person to write well. I know people disagree, but I have witnessed the child who writes like an adult. Writing can be an innate talent.

        Well, I have rambled on too much, but I thought it is food for thought.

        I am very much looking forward to finishing your novel and reading the other four books of yours that I got!!!

        • K.M. Weiland | @KMWeiland says

          Thanks, Christopher! I hope you enjoy the books!

          I tend to think that someone’s writing voice is a bit of a combination between natural proclivity and conscious practice. For example, my prose totally leans towards the complex, but I’ve consciously worked to simplify it in many areas to achieve clarity.

  11. All these comments, and nobody said anything about “don’t just let it slid right on by” …. should be *slide*, right?

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